Comm Skills
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 Communication is what it does!

Communication is known to us as the Faculty of Expressions-Reception, Understanding-Sharing. It is divided into to:

  1. Vrbal Communication (Verbal Oral(Spoken) Communication and Verbal Written Communication
  2. Non-Verbal Communication (KOPPACT)

Read the following Submission by My Students:

Communication is an art to express ideas and thoughts to people. Listening-Speaking-Reading-Writng remain the fundamental parts of communication. Whereas Listening and Reading are Receptive; Speaking and Writing are Expressive faculties. Communication can be divided into three basic components: they are Presentation Skills (combination of verbal and non-verbal communication), Writing Skills and Conversation Skills. According to research any communication includes 7 percent spoken words, 38 percent voice and tone, and 55 percent body language. It is an interesting fact that 93 percent of our daily communication is non-verbal. Females are found to have much better visual and auditory skills. Here in this essay we are strictly confining ourselves to its non-verbal aspect.

Non-verbal communication is integral yet a complex part of our overall communication skills. Non-verbal communication is a message or response not expressed in words or hints. Non-verbal signals are deeply rooted and conscious part of our overall behaviours. It is a recognised as route to discover what the other side wants. It is a combination of implicit and explicit meaning of words. It gives us information about emotional state and reinforces the meaning of words. It can play five roles in communication which are repetition, contradiction, substitution, complementing and accenting. Various things which an individual can take care of during presentations are non-verbal behaviours and spatial arrangements of words. There are various types of non-verbal communication styles which can be abbreviated as “KOPPACT”. It stands for kinesis, oculisics, paralanguage, proxemics, chromatics, tactics. It is explained below in detail:-
Kinesis includes body language, body movements, gestures, postures, postures, facial expressions head and hand movements. It can be used to emphasise on what is being said. It has various elements like voice quality, adapters, regulators, affect displays, and illustrators. In all non-verbal modes facial expressions are of the most significance as it plays 55 percent of our total non-verbal communication. Facial expressions can be further sub-divided into micro expressions, sign languages and eye contact. Postures can reflect people’s emotions, attitudes, and intentions. Research has identified range of postural signals such as open and closed postures. It helps to determine individual’s degree of confidence, status and receptivity to audience. Moreover, postures help to identify degree of attention and interpersonal relationship. Mirror image congruent postures helps to identify the sentiment of the audience by number of leans, folded arms, legs crossed, mudras, bends and various others sitting and standing. Gestures are woven into the fabrics of daily lives. They strengthen our opinion by movement of hands (wave, point, beckon), nodding, expressions (nine sentiments or navratnas). The meaning of gestures are interpreted differently across different cultures. It is important to be clear as it can lead to misinterpretations. Adapters, symbolic and conversational are three types of gestures.      
Oculisics deals with eye span or eye contact. We can deceive people through eyes. We should try to establish proper eye contact as it can give proper indications to audience. It can help establish interest, engagement, involvement and attention with the audience. It basically helps to serve three purposes. Firstly, It helps to give and receive feedback. Looking at someone lets them know that the receiver is concentrating on the content of their speech as not maintaining eye contact can indicate disinterest. Secondly, it helps people know when it is their 'turn' to speak. Eye contact is more likely to be continuous when someone is listening, rather than speaking. When a person has finished what they have to say, they will look directly at the other person and this gives a signal that the arena is open. Thirdly, it helps to communicate something about a relationship between people. When you dislike someone, you tend to avoid eye contact and pupil size is often reduced. On the other hand, the maintenance of positive eye contact signals interest or attraction in the audience. Some of the examples of this are Narendra Modi and Barrack Obama. 
Proxemics is the spatial distance, intimate relation, closeness between people, group or society. It involves embracing, touching and whispering. It is seen that close friends, relatives, mutual friends share excellent space with each other and are able to understand each other better.  We all have a need for physical space, although that need differs depending on the culture, the situation, and the closeness of the relationship. One can use physical space to communicate many different nonverbal messages, including signals of intimacy and affection, aggression and dominance. While delivery of speech one must have eight to ten feet distance.
Paralanguage  is the pitch and tone of our verbal message. When we speak other people read our voices in addition to listening to our words. They pay attention to our pace of speaking, time, loudness, tone and inflection.Our tone of voice can indicate sarcasm, anger, affection and confidence. Pitch is high and low modulation of voice. It depicts anger and happiness. High pitch helps to reinforce with cover and coat. High pitch helps to highlight the important message and low pitch can determine less importance, fatigue, and disinterest.
Chronemics or timing  plays a very important role in in presentation to establish proper sync or wavelength between verbal and non-verbal communications. Sense of time helps to indicate starting and ending of an event. It can depict interest and disinterest in audience as well as speaker. For example looking at the watch while giving presentation can indicate disinterest and can evade audience from listening and marks loss of interest. Various aspects of time are temporal processing, cognitions, emotions, embodiments, interval time and perception.    
Artifactics the things that one carries. Example the way of dressing. It adds to ones personality .Our outlook can impress people. It is very important the way one carries oneself. It helps the audience to interpret and analyze us better.
Touch (or Haptics) can help to reassure people, make them comfortable, or even dissuade and discomfort them. A touch can send a positive or negative signal. A touch We communicate a great deal through touch. Think about the messages given by the following: a weak handshake, a timid tap on the shoulder, a warm bear hug, a reassuring slap on the back, a patronizing pat on the head, or a controlling grip on your arm.
Benefits of non-verbal communication are it strengthens relationship between people, helps to provide feedback, regulate the flow of communication, keep people motivated to listen, increases credibility of speaker, improves expressions and understanding, gives satisfaction, and even improves popularity. Some advantages of Non-verbal communication are that it helps to communicate with deaf people, respond in silent zones, convey secrets, conversation with distant person, save time, make conversations short and brief and helps to communicate with people who do not understand our language. Non-verbal communication has few disadvantages also. It cannot be used to have long conversations, to unveil particulars of the message, difficult to understand and requires lot of patience and repetitions, cannot be used as a public tool for communication, less influential, not impressive and impressionable.
People nowadays prefer emails over facial interactions without realizing that electric communications will and can never be a substitute for the face of someone. As it is popularly said that our actions speak louder than words”, as sign language and language of symbols is understood by all.  


The following online resources can be viewed for better understanding of KOPPACT:

Non-Verbal communication

More PowerPoint presentations from Imprint Training Center

Another Resource:


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About the Author
Author: Parveen Sharma Website:
Founder and Skill Development Facilitator at UniSkills LLP
EklavyaParv is the Life Long Learning platform of UniSkills School of Skill Development, Kurukshetra (Haryana) INDIA. Working on the motivational trilogy of Enhance-Empower-Encourage, 'UniSkills' is providing learning contents to learners across the globe as its Open Educational Resources (OERs) initiative. Parveen Kumar Sharma is a Skill Development Facilitator and Founder of UniSkills. He has been working in the areas of Communication Skills, EdTech, Internet Maturity, Academic Intervention and Skill Development for a decade. His academic credentials are: M.Phil. (English), Post-graduation in English as well as in Journalism and Mass Communication. He holds a Bachelor of Education and more than 15 online certifications in various areas of learning. He is an ardent believer of Innovative Learning and has established 'EduSoMedia' (Education through Social Media) Model of Learning in HigherEd while working with his students at Amity University Noida (2009-2015). He is associated with various government and private organisations as an expert.